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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl1177\margr5491\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2206\margrsxn5512\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols2\colno1\colw3539\colsr731\colno2\colw720 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 GENERAL RELIGIOUS CONDITIONS}\par \column \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb7\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 311}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn1177\margrsxn5491\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri0\sb230\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Harsacarita \i0 that Buddhism, Brahmanism., and Jainism \expndtw11 were the principal religions in Harsa's empire. Of \expndtw9 these, the last was not so popular except in certain \expndtw14 parts, viz., Vaisali, Paundravardhana, and Sama-\expndtw6 tata, where the Digambaras were numerous. The \expndtw8 Svetambaras constituted its other important section. \expndtw9 To Yuan Chwang, of course, Buddhism appeared to \expndtw8 be in quite a flourishing condition, but it had suffer\-\expndtw3 ed decline in several localities like Kosambi, Sravasti, \expndtw2 and Vaisali. The monastic establishments, whose very existence depended upon the support and charity of the \expndtw9 laity, were the centres of Buddhist life and activity. \expndtw1 Of the two broad divisions of Buddhism, Mahayana and \expndtw-1 Hinayana, the former seems to have considerably gained \expndtw1 ground. The pilgrim also speaks of its eighteen schools, \expndtw0 which differed widely in their practices and claimed \expndtw4 intellectual superiority over one another.\super 1\nosupersub . Such un\-\expndtw8 seemly controversies must have weakened the cause \expndtw6 of Buddhism and reacted in favour of Brahmanism, which had been showing signs of revival and vigour \expndtw2 since the glorious epoch of the Guptas. Its main strong\-\expndtw7 holds in Harsa's empire were Prayaga and Varanasi. \expndtw-1 Like Jainism and Buddhism, which in its Mahayana form \expndtw3 encouraged the worship of the Buddha and the Bodhi-\expndtw9 sattvas, Brahmanism was frankly given to idolatry. \expndtw7 The most popular Brahmanical deities were Aditya, \expndtw10 Siva, and Visnu, and their idols were installed in \expndtw1 temples where they were worshipped with elaborate \expndtw11 ceremonial.\super 2\nosupersub  The Brahmans kindled the sacrificial \expndtw13 fire (Agni), held the cow sacred, and performed \expndtw11 various rites to bring good luck and prosperity.\super 3 \nosupersub\expndtw8 Another feature of Brahmanism was the multiplicity \expndtw13 of philosophical schools and ascetic orders. Bana}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li374\fi0\ri0\sb248\sa0\tx493 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw1 Waiters, I, p. 162.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li374\fi0\ri0\sb4\sa0\tx493 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\i\expndtw4 He. C.T., \i0 p. 44-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li374\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx493 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 3{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw-1 Ibid., \i0 pp. 44-45;   see also pp. 71, 90, 130.}\par }